Zur taxonomie, Lebensweise und parasitophyletischen evidenz der federlingsgattung Struthiolipeurus sensu lato (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Ischnocera)

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1998
Authors:E. Mey
Journal:Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde Berlin - Zoologishe Reihe
Pagination:65 - 93
Date Published:1998
Keywords:Africa, America, Archolipeurus, chilensis, distribution, functional, hyperparasitism, Ischnocera, key, life, Meinertzhageniellidae, morphology, mtax, nov., PHP, Pterocnemia, Rhea, Rheidae, South, spec., Struthio, Struthiolipeurus, Struthionidae

The c. 80 Mill. years old ischnoceran chewing louse genus Struthiolipeurus s. l. parasitizing both Struthionidae (Africa) and Rheidae (South America) only is revised. Archolipeurus nov. gen. and Struthiolipeurus chilensis nov. spec. are described and illustrated. A. nandu, A. renschi, St. andinus, St. stresemanni and St. struthionis (incl. egg and larvae) are redescribed. Lecto-types are designated for both A. nandu and St. andinus. Except for the sibling species pair St. struthionis - St. stresemanni, all other species are clearly distinguished from each other by morphological characters. An abdominal organ of unknown function (may be a sensillus) is situated on each side of segments II to VIII. Data are given about some details of life cycles of St. struthionis: the importance of the functional unit of mandibles and asymmetric ventral preantennal region for host attachment, mating sequence (copulatory posture is subfeminal, timing of mating occurs for up to 18 h), life expectation apart from the host (25-26 d) and hyperparasitism by a mite. St. struthionis is found as a secondary colonizer on captive Rhea americana only. The hospital-geographical distribution is listed. Some problems regarding chewing lice material collected from wild versus captive birds are outlined. As indicated by two species of both Struthiolipeurus and Meinertzhageniella, Pterocnemia comprises two geographically isolated species: pennata in the southern area of South America, tarapacensis in the northern ones. Struthiolipeurus (and Archolipeurus) suggest a strong relationship between Struthionidae and Rheidae. This evidence is discussed in connection with the ostrich-rhea divergence (vicariant and dispersal hypothesis). Struthiolipeurus/Archolipeurus may have originated on a common palaeognathous ancestor in the mid-Cretaceous of the Southern Hemisphere. A key is provided for the identification of the species of Archolipeurus and Struthiolipeurus and for the genus Meinertzhageniella.

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