|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2015|
|Authors:||M. Ashfaq, Prosser, S., Nasir, S., Masood, M., Ratnasingham, S., Hebert, P. D. N.|
|Type of Article:||Open Access|
The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, “D” and “E”, showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades “D” and “E” are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occured slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages.
Accession codes: All new sequences have also been deposited in GenBank under the following accession numbers: COI (KJ839836 to KJ840549); cytb (KJ840550 to KJ840795).
|Short Title:||Sci Rep|
High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera)