High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera)

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2015
Authors:M. Ashfaq, Prosser, S., Nasir, S., Masood, M., Ratnasingham, S., Hebert, P. D. N.
Journal:Scientific Reports
Volume:5
Issue:14188
Pagination:13 pp
Date Published:09-2015
Type of Article:Open Access
Abstract:

Abstract

The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, “D” and “E”, showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades “D” and “E” are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occured slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages.

Accession codes: All new sequences have also been deposited in GenBank under the following accession numbers: COI (KJ839836 to KJ840549); cytb (KJ840550 to KJ840795).

Data accessibility
All sequences generated in this study are available on BOLD (www.boldsystems.org) in the data set (DS-MAPTH) and also through the following DOI (dx.doi.org/10.5883/DS-MAPTH). All new sequences have also been deposited in GenBank under the following accession numbers: COI (KJ839836 to KJ840549); cytb (KJ840550 to KJ840795). Additional supporting information including collection locations, photographs, sequences and trace files are available on BOLD.

URL:http://www.nature.com/articles/srep14188
DOI:10.1038/srep14188
Short Title:Sci Rep
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