Prevalence and Clinico-Pathological Effects of Ectoparasites in Backyard Poultry

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2006
Authors:I. S. Shanta, Begum, N., Anisuzzaman, A., Bari, A. S. M., Karim, M. J.
Keywords:Backyard poultry, clinico-pathological effects, ectoparasites, prevalence

To study the prevalence of ectoparasites and their clinicopathological effects on backyard poultry, 300 poultry of both sexes and different ages were examined in different areas of Patuakhali district from July 2005 to May 2006. Of them 86.67% were infested with one or more species of ectoparasites. Six species of lice such as Menacanthus stramineus (74%), Menopon gallinae (63%), Lipeurus caponis (48%), Cuclotogaster heterographus (25%), Goniodes gigas (18%), and Goniocotes gallinae (14%), two species of mites namely Dermanyssus gallinae (57%), Knemidocoptes mutans, (43%) and one species of fly, Simulium sp. (3.7%) were identified. Among these, M. stramineus was the most common. Aged above 5 months, 100% poultry were infested with ectoparasites but cocks and broody hens were severely infested.
In broody hens, prevalence of D. gallinae was the highest (97.3%). K. mutans (43%) was mostly found in adult poultry aged above two years. The affected birds were emaciated with rough plumage, dandruff, and petechial haemorrhages on the highly infested skin. Small ulcerative lesions were common in Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in which the engorged, red parasites stacked tightly. In K. mutans infestation, legs were rough, swollen with scaly appearance, which was from tibiotarsal joint downwards to the joint of the toes. Some of the severely affected birds showed lameness but no malformation was observed. Histopathologically, scaly leg was characterized by hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. In tissue sections, the mites were observed as transverse or cross section in the deeper parts of the stratum corneum or the
superficial layers of the stratum malpighii of the skin and rarely go deeper. In some area of skin, there were losses of epithelium. In advanced cases, there was secondary pyogenic infection; characterized by severe pus cell infiltration in the dermis. The present study suggests that ectoparasitic infestation is very common in the backyard poultry of Bangladesh and they are associated with the production of some clinicopathological effects variable degree

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