Infections and Infestations

Publication Type:Book Chapter
Year of Publication:2020
Authors:D. Asz-Sigall, Martinez-Velasco, M. Abril, Arenas, R.
Editor:A. Tosti, Asz-Sigall, D., Pirmez, R.
Book Title:Hair and Scalps Treatments
Keywords:Antibacterial agents, Antifungals, Hair infections, Hair shaving, ivermectin, Pediculicides, Pediculosis, Piedra, Tinea capitis, treatment, Trichomycosis, Trichoscopy

Infections and infestations of the hair are mainly caused by bacteria, fungi, and ectoparasites. Dermoscopy and optical microscopy are very useful tools to confirm the diagnosis and follow-up; other diagnostic tests can be used, including KOH, Gram stain procedure, or cultures. Topical pediculicides are the first-line treatment in pediculosis, but resistance to these drugs is common. Manual removal of lice and occlusive agents are other alternative options; oral therapy is occasionally required in refractory cases. Oral antifungals are the first-line therapy in tinea capitis; treatment election depends on the clinical form, age, and etiological agent. Griseofulvin, terbinafine, and itraconazole are the three main drugs used. Piedra and trichomycosis are hair shaft infections, in which oral and topical treatments have a low therapeutic response; complete resolution can be achieved by general hygiene measures such as shaving off all the affected hairs

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